Made in Golden

This is a guest post by Jennifer Brundage, a National Outreach Manager for Smithsonian Affiliations and a Lemelson Center Advisory Committee member.

Location, location, location. It’s important for real estate as we all know, but as I’m learning, also critical for innovation and invention.

The state of Colorado has no shortage of breathtaking, jaw-dropping locations. In my home state over the holidays, I rediscovered Golden, a town not only full of scenic vistas, but also packed with nuggets of invention. (Excuse the pun! I couldn’t help myself.)

A grand arch spanning the town’s main street welcomes all to Golden.

A grand arch spanning the town’s main street welcomes all to Golden.

Golden (“Where the West Lives”!) is situated near the junction of I-70, the highway that leads straight to the Rocky Mountains and the ski resorts (and former mining towns) for which Colorado is so famous. It’s also only 15 miles west of Denver, enough to be close, but not too close, to major transportation lines. During the Gold Rush, Golden quickly became an ideal stopping point between the capital city and the mining industry. In fact, in 1858, David King Wall, Golden’s first resident, innovated a way to divert the pristine mountain water from Clear Creek to irrigate crops of vegetables, providing much-desired fresh produce for city dwellers and miners alike. The access to this same pure water also attracted Golden’s most famous resident, Adolph Coors in 1873. As the Places of Invention project repeatedly shows, when access to natural resources, business opportunities, and intellectual capital come together, they create a magnet for even more innovation over time. Golden is no exception. Soon, the Colorado School of Mines started attracting engineers to the town, and mountaineers discovered its benefits as well.

View of the Made in Golden exhibition, showing a diorama of the town from 1938-39, and a list of reasons why over 150 manufacturing businesses call Golden home.

View of the Made in Golden exhibition, showing a diorama of the town from 1938-39, and a list of reasons why over 150 manufacturing businesses call Golden home.

This legacy of invention, stretching into the present day, is the subject of an enlightening exhibition currently on view at the Golden History Center, entitled Made in Golden. After establishing the primacy of location for this community, the exhibition describes how the Coors Brewery decided in the early 1950s that steel—the material chosen for selling beer in cans—was seriously flawed for a variety of reasons, including leakage, contaminants, cost, and most importantly, the unpleasant metallic taste it gave to beer. And so in 1959, Coors invented the two-piece aluminum can, revolutionizing the beverage industry. Coors continued to innovate, creating the internal coating, sterile-fill, and printing processes for aluminum cans that are still the industry standard.

Another view of the Made in Golden exhibition, showing various processes of innovation.

Another view of the Made in Golden exhibition, showing various processes of innovation.

Access and proximity to the mountains also brought innovative adventurers to Golden. In 1981, Patrick Smith survived an avalanche in nearby Berthoud Pass, even though he left his specialized shovel (invented by fellow Golden resident Paul Ramer) in his car because it wouldn’t fit in his backpack. In response, he designed a new kind of pack around the dimensions of a Ramer shovel, and the firm Mountainsmith was born. Mountainsmith used a patented delta suspension system, and produced the best selling lumbar pack for close to ten years. In related gear innovation, climbers and mountaineers alike also flock to the Spyderco knives developed and still produced in Golden, with their trademark holes and pocket clips that make these necessary survival tools easy to carry.

Mountainsmith packs on view in Made in Golden.

Mountainsmith packs on view in Made in Golden.

Jolly Ranchers were developed in Golden, as a way for ice cream vendors Bill and Dorothy Harmsen to extend their season into the Colorado winter by making candy with best-selling names like Fire Stix. And with only four companies in the world producing low wattage lasers for commercial use, Golden boasts one of them, Epilog, who turned the industry on its head when it invented the first low-cost, small-format laser engraver. It’s like a printer, except instead of paper, one can print on glass, wood, metal, fabric… even eggs!

An Epilog laser-produced metal disk, each visitor’s souvenir from this innovation exhibition.

An Epilog laser-produced metal disk, each visitor’s souvenir from this innovation exhibition.

Golden is not the only place to uncover the state’s history of invention. The History Colorado Center (a Smithsonian Affiliate) chronicles innovations in mining, snow sports and more at its location in downtown Denver. (For example, did you know that the cheeseburger was invented in Denver?) The Lemelson Center’s Places of Invention exhibition already plans to highlight two Colorado stories when it opens in 2015. The Telluride Historical Museum (a Smithsonian Affiliate) will share how the Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant built in 1891 was the world’s first commercial long distance transmission and use of AC generated power. This breakthrough was critical to operating the silver mines in the often inaccessible terrain of the San Juan mountains of southern Colorado, but also, transformed the industrial capacity of the nation. Fort Collins’ revolutionary inventions in clean energy and socially responsible innovation will be featured as well, showing that Colorado State University, the city, and community businesses actively pursue collaborations that result in local innovations with a global impact.

Another view of the Made in Golden exhibition, showing a lab for visitors to devise their own innovative solutions to city problems.

Another view of the Made in Golden exhibition, showing a lab for visitors to devise their own innovative solutions to city problems.

Colorado is a gold mine of invention, both historically and into the present day. I’m confident future prospecting trips will uncover even deeper veins of innovation. Any ideas on where else to look?!

Calling Smithsonian Affiliates!

IMAGE EXP

APPLY NOW BEFORE THE SEPTEMBER 1ST DEADLINE!

Become a part of this new model for the co-creation of exhibition content!

Join other Affiliates eager to share the different ways people, resources, and geography came together in their communities to forge hot spots of invention.

THE PROJECT

Selected Affiliates and their community partners explore the central message of the  Places of Invention exhibition—that invention is everywhere and sparked by unique combinations of people, resources, and surroundings. Teams, led by Affiliates, are asked to apply these themes to their own communities and create multiple deliverables, including videos, oral histories, and public programs.

Video deliverables include one or more short pieces synthesizing team findings. These pieces will become featured stories on the POI exhibition’s dynamic, large-scale interactive map in the center of the gallery. The map will be accessible from both the exhibition and web, allowing it to grow exponentially as visitors read, tag, and comment on Affiliate stories, even make use of the option to add their own images and videos.

Current stories being developed include:

The Illinois River, one of the most consistent and powerful influences on Peoria, IL innovation

Newark

One of the major glass companies in Newark, OH: The Holophane Co. Inc. Works

The Bronx, NY
Fort Collins, CO
Hartford, CT
Hollywood, CA
Huntsville, AL
Lowell, MA
Medical Alley, MN
Newark, OH
Peoria, IL
Pittsburgh, PA
Seattle, WA
Silicon Valley, CA

With your participation, we hope to have videos representing all regions of the United States when the Places of Invention exhibition opens in 2015 at the National Museum of American History.

WHAT KINDS OF INVENTION? ALL KINDS!! We’re interested in any new or improved way of doing things; in interdisciplinary stories of STEM-based invention and innovation through cross-pollination, including the bustling social spots where people shared and refined ideas; in the ways local people lived, worked, played, collaborated, adapted, took risks, solved problems, and sometimes failed—all in the pursuit of something new.

We’re interested in a wide range of innovation: in green energy, medicine, education, transportation, and robotics; in the ways that art and music can intersect with technology, as with the electric guitar; in civil engineering, architecture, and construction; in agriculture—from seed cultivation to harvesting processes; in biotechnology that changed the way we eat, treat disease, and create alternative fuels; in communications and fiber-optics; in fabric technology—from 19th-century textile mills to high-performance synthetic fabrics worn by athletes today; in computers, software engineering, web technology, and social media; in business and advertising; in aeronautics, military production, and urban planning; and in the mass production of any kind of goods. Stories can be about current and historic innovation, as well as cycles of innovation spawned by a community’s infrastructure and natural resources repurposed over time.

REQUIREMENTS

Must be a Smithsonian Affiliate to be eligible

IMPORTANT DATES

Application Deadline: September 1, 2013
Winner Notification: October 4, 2013
DC Training: December 6, 2013
Final Deliverables Due: December 8, 2014

FOR MORE INFORMATION

Contact Anna Karvellas, Places of Invention Affiliates Project Coordinator, via email or by calling 202-633-4722.

Access her presentation from the Places of Invention panel at the 2013 Smithsonian Affiliations Conference, as well as those by the following Affiliates:

Documenting Gaming in Greater Seattle, Julia Swan, Adult Public Programs Manager, Museum of History and Industry

Inventing the Pittsburgh Sound, Kate A. Lukaszewicz, Lead Educator, Senator John Heinz History Center

NSF

Places of Invention has been made possible by a generous grant from the National Science Foundation 

Innovating Jazz: The Pittsburgh Sound

IMG_0002

Mary Lou Williams’ piano, c. 1940s, on view in a re-creation of the Crawford Grill in the Senator John Heinz History Center’s exhibition, “Pittsburgh: A Tradition of Innovation”

It’s no wonder that a unique jazz sound emerged from Pittsburgh. The city has a hum and a buzz, a palpable energy that resonates in its landscape, social spaces, and multitude of people. My colleague Ken Kimery—Executive Producer of the Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra and Program Director of our Jazz Oral History Program—tells me the sound is unmistakeable. That you instantly recognize the city’s voice and feel in the placement of the beats of Kenny Clarke’s, Art Blakey’s, and Roger Humphries drums. In Stanley Turrentine’s saxophone. In Billy Strayhorn’s compositional techniques and the musical dialects produced through jazz session group dynamics.

 

Kenny Clarke Quartet

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9z9sU5dXnw

Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qywMA_vrvsc

Check out the Roger Humphries drum solo at 3:25

I recently went to Pittsburgh wanting to know more about this sound for the Lemelson Center’s Places of Invention (POI) Affiliates Pilot Project. When the POI exhibition opens in 2015, the story of Pittsburgh jazz innovation will be featured on a large, digital interactive map at the center of the exhibition and website. The Senator John Heinz History Center, one of our most active Smithsonian Affiliate museums, is creating content for the project with Dan Holland of the Young Preservationists’ Association of Pittsburgh. The story will focus on the 1920s–1960s. Ken Kimery and Marty Ashby, Executive Producer of Pittsburgh’s MCG Jazz, are advising the team, directing them to additional experts and resources and making available oral histories and other multimedia. When the exhibition opens, the public will have opportunities to comment on the story and add recollections of their own, making the map another repository for the growing body of documentation about the city’s jazz history. We’re especially eager to see material posted by the Pittsburgh jazz and preservation communities.

The thesis of the POI exhibition is that place and community matter; that advantages and limitations of geography and resources drive innovation when combined with new ideas shared and refined through social networks. If I had any questions about Pittsburgh geography, they were answered on my drive into the city to visit the POI team. My car went up and down and around steep hills, past rocky slopes, and over railroad tracks and wide rivers moving large chunks of ice. As I wound through neighborhoods of brick houses, I couldn’t help but lean into each curve and think of the geology that helped drive the city’s famous steel and glass industries. Buildings I passed on rocky outcroppings looked more like cliff dwellings than urban homes.

Clockwise from top left: Crawford Grill sign, Art Blakey House, Crawford Grill, August Wilson House

Clockwise from top left: Crawford Grill sign, Art Blakey House, Crawford Grill, August Wilson House

I learned even more about Pittsburgh’s landscape on a tour of the city’s Hill District led by Dan Holland. His knowledge of the area—the things that live even when the physical structure might be gone—was not only impressive but also moving. Smithsonian Affiliations’ Jennifer Brundage and the Heinz History Center’s Sandra Smith and Kate Lukaszwewicz also joined and provided helpful insight. As we passed the homes of Art Blakey and August Wilson, we saw storefronts and row houses clumped together on otherwise razed blocks. The Crawford Grill nightclub held its own on a street corner behind a blue historical marker. At the New Granada Theater on Centre Avenue, signs of community involvement and recovery were evident.

Details of the New Granada Theater, originally built as a Pythian Temple in 1927 for the Knights of Pythias, an lodge for African American craftsmen.

Details of the New Granada Theater featuring Pittsburgh jazz legends. The building was originally built as a Pythian Temple for the Knights of Pythias, an African American craftsmen lodge.

Dan also took us to a special spot on the Hill for the tour’s most dramatic view: a panorama of “the city of bridges.”

View of the Strip from the Hill: The Heinz History Center’s Sandra Smith and Kate Lukaszewicz with the Smithsonian’s Jennifer Brundage and YPA’s Dan Holland. Remains of old funicular to the right. Allegheny River in the background. Zoom in for detail.

View of the Strip from the Hill: The Heinz History Center’s Sandra Smith and Kate Lukaszewicz with the Smithsonian’s Jennifer Brundage and YPA’s Dan Holland. Remains of old funicular to the right. Allegheny River in the background. Zoom in for detail.

Nearby, we could see the remains of the old Penn funicular from a time when gravity planes transported coal and people up and down the Hill to the Strip District.

Click on the image to go to “Pittsburgh Then and Now,” a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette site. Photo copyright 2004 Carnegie Museum of Art, Charles “Teenie” Harris Archive.

Click on the image to go to “Pittsburgh Then and Now,” a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette site. Photo copyright 2004 Carnegie Museum of Art, Charles “Teenie” Harris Archive.

So how did the city’s geography, community, and networks shape Pittsburgh jazz? Our team is exploring this question in detail, taking into account the research and documentation that has been lovingly preserved in its cultural institutions. Does it come from the people dining with—celebrating with—worshipping with—playing with—laughing with—surviving with each other in segregated Pittsburgh? From a strong African American middle class with money to spend at the lively social spots that lined the Hill? From the mix of ethnicities that came to live and work together? From the many schools and institutions promoting music education? From the building trades-inspired apprenticeship system? From the clubs serving mill workers whose shifts ran around the clock? From the artists who could actually make a living performing and teaching in the city? From the visiting musicians bringing new ideas and inspiration to the music scene while on layovers between New York, Chicago and New Orleans?

Or was it something else? The very rhythm of the city itself? Can the answer be found in Teenie Harris’ photographs of musicians and good-timers packed into the Crawford Grill and Goode’s Pharmacy? In images of children in classrooms clapping to live piano or playing brass instruments and bongos on the street? In performance shots of Roy Eldridge blasting his trumpet, Art Blakey on drums, a

teenie

Boys, possibly from Herron Hill School, playing brass instruments on steps, circa 1938-€“1945. Charles “Teenie” Harris/Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh.
Click on image for NPR’s story “The Big Legacy of Charles ‘Teenie’ Harris” about the photographer and the opening of a CMA exhibition of his work in 2011.

young Ahmad Jamal at the piano, and Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn backstage at the Stanley Theater? In the movement of the dancers and Lena Horne captured in a night at the Loendi Club? In Mary Lou Williams sitting at the Syria Mosque’s piano, surrounded by Earl “Fatha” Hines, Erroll Garner, Billy Eckstine, and Maxine Sullivan?

Ahmad Jamal Trio

Renée Govanucci and Marty Ashby (MCG Jazz), Dan Holland, and Sandra Smith and Kate Lukaszewicz (Heinz History Center). The team met to brainstorm and think about collaborative opportunities between the Heinz History Center, MCG Jazz, the Lemelson Center, and the broader Smithsonian.

Renée Govanucci and Marty Ashby (MCG Jazz), Dan Holland (YPA), and Sandra Smith and Kate Lukaszewicz (Heinz History Center). The team met to discuss the POI project and collaborative opportunities.

My colleagues and I are enthusiastic to learn more and see how the Pittsburgh POI team develops its story. My trip was deeply rewarding and full of exuberant conversations about the project and the importance of telling this often overlooked story of Pittsburgh invention. We welcome all to join us as we celebrate the ongoing innovation of the Pittsburgh jazz sound.

 

Lowell through the Lens

This is a guest post by Jessica K. Wilson, Executive Director of Lowell Telecommunications Corporation—the  American Textile History Museum‘s  community partner in the Places of Invention (POI) Affiliates Project

 

We were thrilled when our friends at the American Textile History Museum (ATHM) approached us to be a part of the Lemelson Center’s Places of Invention Affiliates Project. It seemed a natural fit. For nearly twenty years, the Lowell Telecommunications Corporation—or LTC, as our members lovingly call us—has been a place where the Lowell community has visually translated their stories and ideas into multimedia shared worldwide.

We’re what in the 1970s was called a public access television station and in the late 1990s and early 2000s a community media center. Now with the advent of a movement towards all things local, we like to think of ourselves as a farm where we grow local video by doing what we do best and most often: train people from throughout the city to produce digital film and video using professional media equipment.

Locally-made video introduction to LTC featuring members of the Lowell community

LTC’s goal is to help our citizens communicate with the largest possible audience—to say something about the space they live in, people they encounter, and things they value in our community. Once this was only possible over Lowell’s cable TV broadcast signal; now with tools like YouTube and iMovie, online broadcast channels are seemingly infinite.

We’re delighted that the Smithsonian’s POI Affiliates Project provides an opportunity to take Lowell’s unique story to an even broader audience. Working with ATHM, we’re developing videos that will become part of the interactive map in the POI exhibition and website. One of the things we’re particularly interested is the way historic technology continues to shape contemporary innovation in Lowell. Textile mills and other spaces are used and re-used for new purposes. The city’s physical advantages and constraints inspire—and require—new solutions. Our POI Affiliate team plans to develop video topics around these themes.  

LTC is moving full-steam ahead. Firm believers that anyone can be a video producer with the right education, we have taken the same approach to becoming local historians. Our staff has donned our “historian” hats and are enlisting members of the Lowell community in our documentary efforts. Conversations with ATHM’s David Unger, Director of Interpretation, have made us think more deeply about the 19th-century textile industry and the way it affects city growth today—economically, demographically, and architecturally. We look forward to working with the Museum and sharing our findings with you.

LTC’s recent tour of Lowell’s City Hall building shows how it has been used and re-used to meet the changing needs of city residents.

 

Charismatic Women

 

Harriet Tubman, oil on paperboard by William H. Johnson, about 1945

When I was a girl, I liked to read biographies of famous American women—hard-bound books written for “young adults” with book covers featuring strong, resolute women staring out onto uneven playing fields. Abigail Adams, Harriet Tubman, Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams. I loved them. I loved their stories and before I was able to discern the difference between autobiography and biography—let alone mythology—it felt like the women in these books were talking just to me about the things they had seen, their struggles for freedom, for education, and for fair treatment. They spoke about the places they traveled, the people who made their lives better or worse, and the conditions that necessitated new ideas and bold action. Courses were changed in pivotal moments and small acts of resistance had powerful and sometimes dangerous consequences. These books were cool to the touch and just holding them in my hands made me feel righteous.

Susan B. Anthony, gelatin silver-print photograph by Theodore C. Marceau, 1898

Abigail Adams, silhouette by Raphaelle Peale, 1804

Lately I’ve been thinking a lot about how important those stories were to my developing sense of self. Despite the somber book covers, these women were the kind of charismatic leaders we often talk about at the Lemelson Center: they fostered community and social networks and drove innovation with significant social and cultural implications. They adapted, took risks, solved problems, and blazed trails—all in the pursuit of something new.

Jane Addans, oil on canvas by George de Forest Brush, 1906

Jane Addams’ efforts to deal morally and ethically with the social problems of industrialization had particular resonance for me. Inspired by the success of Toynbee Hall, an English settlement house in London’s East End, Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull-House in 1889. Hull-House provided a safe and culturally rich community for Chicago’s most vulnerable, including immigrants, children, and the elderly. Addams and Starr sought to combat the isolationism that immigrants and the urban poor felt by providing what historian Rima Lunin Schultz calls “a new kind of urban space” to “develop new avenues of social intercourse” between middle class and wealthy Americans and the largely immigrant working poor and their children. [1] At Hull-House, the educated middle- and upper- class residents living within the community implemented shared theories on social reform. These practices, and Addams’ prolific writing and lecturing, led to a national reform movement that put Progressive ideas into practice. National legislature for women and children, including the federal Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916, were direct results of Hull-House initiatives. The nation’s first juvenile court system was as well. [2]

There is another reason why Addams had particular resonance for me: she and Hull-House provided important resources to my own family of Greek immigrants. I learned this later, long after first reading about Addams as an historic figure. A class assignment, an oral history report done with a set list of questions, yielded this and other surprises from a subject I thought I knew well—my yia yia (Greek grandmother aka fortitude incarnate) “She was a wonderful woman—the kindest person I ever met,” Yia Yia said of Addams. The eldest of five kids, Anthula (Anthy) Poulopoulos came over from Greece in 1920 at age eight. Like everyone in the family, she helped her father run the religious candle shop he had established four years earlier on Chicago’s west side, on the corner of Harrison and Halsted. He had first learned the trade from Greek immigrants in the mill-town of Lowell, MA (one of the places of invention being studied by the Lemelson Center). Work at the Chicago store was extremely labor-intensive, but the tall, elaborate candles were used by Greek Orthodox churches throughout the country, and their demand never waned, fortunately, even during the Depression. Most of the family spoke English and did a great deal of translating for the community, even Yia Yia, who would tell Addams which families she knew needed milk or bread. “Miss Addams spoke up for the rights of poor people and she made sure they had enough to eat.”

Jane Addams with children at Hull House, photograph by Allen, Gordon, Schroeppel and Redlich, Inc., 1933

Hull-House provided important services to the neighborhood, including employment and daycare services; social, athletic, and political clubs; and classes in English language, citizenship, painting, carpentry, sewing, singing, and mathematics, to name a few. Violin and piano lessons were open to adults and children, including Yia Yia and her sister, Frances, who was proud to be a member of the Hull-House “Milk and Cookie Club” that provided just that to young children. Performances of Greek plays and Italian music inspired personal dignity and ethnic pride. Spaces to create, exhibit, and sell traditional crafts allowed immigrants opportunities to connect with their native cultures and showcase their skills. “The visual and performing arts, and the display of traditional crafts became vehicles through which different immigrant groups could ‘perform’ their European identities and have these identities affirmed and respected by Americans and other ethnic groups,” Schultz explains. [1] Addams thought socialization in American ways was important for immigrants, but not at the expense of their culture.

My thoughts have probably turned to charismatic leaders I first admired as a girl because so much of our work on the Places of Invention (POI) project involves identifying these kinds of key figures in the communities we study. We know from our research that individual innovators have social networks that support and enhance their work and Jane Addams and the residents of Hull-House certainly fit this model. Identifying these kinds of figures and their relationships with different networks is one of the most fascinating parts of our POI work. As we move forward in the POI Affiliates Project, you will come to know the charismatic leaders and social and collaborative networks of Lowell, MA; Newark, OH; Oak Ridge, TN; Peoria, IL; Pittsburgh, PA and Seattle, WA. We look forward to sharing with you our discoveries as we dig deep, documenting, researching, recording, and comparing oral histories to learn more about the particular ways that increased exposure to ideas and techniques spawned invention and innovation in each community.

[1] Schultz, Rima Lunin. “Hull House and its Immigrant Neighbors” from the Urban Experience (UE) in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963 website. The UE website is a joint project with the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum and the College of Architecture and the Arts at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

[2] “About Jane Addams,” from the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum website, UIC College of Architecture and the Arts

 

On the Road with Smithsonian Affiliations: Places of Invention in Western Massachusetts

This is a guest post by Jennifer Brundage, a National Outreach Manager for Smithsonian Affiliations and a Lemelson Center Advisory Committee member.

Working in a Smithsonian office devoted to national outreach, I am very fortunate to travel a lot for my job.  My department, Smithsonian Affiliations, fosters long-term collaborative partnerships with museums and cultural institutions nationwide. In our ongoing quest to identify potential partners, I recently found myself traversing western Massachusetts. Both of the museums I visited have recently opened exhibitions that interpret their cities and regions as centers of invention. Having keenly followed the Lemelson Center’s research on the relationship between innovation and location for their upcoming Places of Invention (POI) exhibition, I was struck (and inspired) by how many similar characteristics were highlighted in the museums I visited.

A glimpse at the Museum of Springfield History's exhibition on the city's history of innovation. Photo by Jennifer Brundage.

The Springfield Museums’ new, recently opened Museum of Springfield History documents the many innovations that sprang from this city. Through the lens of POI, I immediately wondered, Why here? The answer was the Springfield Armory. The Springfield site was chosen for an armory in 1777 by General George Washington and closed during the Vietnam War in 1968. (Because the Harper’s Ferry Armory and Arsenal was destroyed during the Civil War by another Springfield native, abolitionist John Brown, the Springfield Armory was America’s first, and last, federal armory.) As is well-documented by the POI team, research and development funded by the government is often a magnet for invention—in this case, for cutting-edge engineering and manufacturing processes. Because of the need to produce firearms quickly and easily during the War of 1812, the Springfield Armory combined the use of interchangeable parts (already done in France), with a rapid method of production. The result, called the “American System,” was precise mass production that revolutionized industry worldwide. (The Springfield Armory is now a National Historic Site.)

"Springfield Bicycle Club--Bicycle Camp--Exhibition and Tournament, Springfield, Mass, U.S.A., Sept. 18, 19, 20, 1883." Color lithograph by Milton Bradley and Co., Springfield, Massachusetts. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Not only did the Armory’s workers contribute to this culture of innovation, but so did the network of contractors in the surrounding region. During the Civil War-era, inventor Milton Bradley moved to Springfield to set up the state’s first color lithography shop. Looking for additional purposes for his lithography machine, Bradley created a board game called “The Checkered Game of Life,” a popular game, now revised, that is still available today. Seeing bored Civil War soldiers stationed in Springfield, Bradley also began to produce chess, checkers and backgammon sets. A board game empire was born. The Milton Bradley Company also was the first American company to make croquet sets.

Board games weren’t the only entertainment to be born in Springfield. Basketball originated here as well, in 1891. A physical education teacher at the YMCA International Training School, James Naismith, introduced the game to his class of 18 young men (literally using a basket tacked to a balcony 10 feet above ground). Within three years, it was being played around the world.

Later, bicycle makers Charles and Frank Duryea, also of Springfield, founded the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in 1896, one of the first companies to build and sell gasoline powered vehicles. (A Duryea automobile is in the collection of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History.)

Dr. Seuss and the Cat and the Hat, Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden at the Springfield Museums. Photograph by Jennifer Brundage.

Springfield’s most famous native son, though, might be Theodor Geisel—otherwise known as Dr. Seuss. The Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden at the Springfield Museums does a great job of juxtaposing the historic images of Springfield’s main street that inspired Geisel with the fanciful illustrations of houses, cars, and people as they were ultimately re-imagined in the creative author’s books.

An hour away in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the Berkshire Museum presents its “hometown” inventors in the Feigenbaum Hall of Innovation. As early as the Revolutionary War, Stephen Crane, owner of the Liberty Paper Mill in Boston, was making paper from cotton—paper that fueled the revolution through its use in patriotic newspapers and broadsides. By 1799, his son Zenas Crane founded his own paper mill, Crane & Co., at an ideal spot on the Housatonic River in Dalton, Massachusetts, in the Berkshires.

The Feigenbaum Hall of Innovation, Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Photo by Jennifer Brundage.

Even though it was eventually discovered that pulp from trees made paper production cheaper, Zenas Crane and his sons continued to insist on using only waste cotton as a suitable raw material. In 1849, they introduced silk threads into the fiber of bank-bill paper, an invention designed to prevent counterfeiting currency. Their dedication to tradition as well as innovation paid off handsomely. In 1879, Crane & Co. won the first contract to produce the paper for the United States currency. Our money is still printed on paper printed by Crane, which continues to introduce technical innovations that protect the security of currencies worldwide.

The Berkshire Museum's invention curriculum--definitely try this at home! Photo by Jennifer Brundage.

Another phenomenon documented by the POI team is the way in which an area’s creative community is fed by, and in turn, nourished by, its place of invention. This is certainly true in the Berkshires, home to many of America’s greatest artists and thinkers. It is in the land-locked Berkshires that Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick, where Norman Rockwell painted some of his most iconic images of America, and where Edith Wharton created the luxurious environment that informed her best-selling novel, The House of Mirth. This mix of creativity and invention is captured so well in the Berkshire Museum’s “Use Your Noodle” elementary school curriculum. Modeling the invention process itself, a box of noodles challenges students to take an everyday object—pasta—and engineer models for math, physics, geometry problems and more.

It’s exciting to experience the truth of the Lemelson Center’s assertion that, while they have chosen historic and contemporary examples for their exhibition, invention can happen anywhere. Every place with the right mix of inventive people, ready resources, and inspiring surroundings is a potential place of invention. Submit your stories and tell us about your own place of invention!

And We’re Off! The “Places of Invention” Affiliate Pilot Project Kick-Off Workshop

Newark, Ohio linen postcard, 1942, Curt Teich & Co, Chicago

Whiskey,
Prohibition
and fiberglass

 

Large-scale fermentation—

Oak Ridge, TN billboard, 1943, when the site was one of the centers for work on the Manhattan Project. Photograph by Ed Wescott.

1853 Lowell, MA patent model for boot and leather sewing machine, William Wickersham, NMAH

 

 

 

the Manhattan Project’s
secret city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee

 

 

 

Cycles of invention
over 300 years in
Lowell, Massachusetts —

 

 

 

Pianist and composer Earl “Fatha” Hines, pioneer of the Pittsburgh sound, Columbia recording featuring "57 Varieties," NMAH

 

 

 

Pittsburgh’s distinct jazz sound—

 

Mary Lou Williams, Pittsburgh jazz pianist and composer, 1944 music folio, Archives Center, NMAH

 

 

 

 

 

Attendees at Seattle's PAX Prime—one of the world's largest gaming events, 2009, photograph by Kiko Villasenor

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seattle’s locus as the center of
a thriving international gaming market—

 

These and other details about local places of invention were recently shared by representatives from six Smithsonian Affiliate museums and their community partners as part of a kick-off event for the Lemelson Center’s Places of Invention Affiliates Pilot Project. The Lemelson Center is working with these Affiliate partners on projects that document invention and innovation in their communities. When complete, developed material will be an integral part of an interactive digital map in our exhibition—yet another lens for examining historic and modern communities where people, resources, and spaces have come together to spark inventiveness. The material also will appear on the Places of Invention website where visitors from around the world will be able to comment and add multimedia about their own places of invention. Equally important, POI-related public programs will take place in each Affiliate community.

Participants in the project are:

The day-long workshop on June 15th at the National Museum of American History was led by Dr. Lorraine McConaghy, a public historian based at Seattle’s Museum of History and Industry. Affiliate museums and their partners were joined by representatives from Smithsonian Affiliations, the National Science Foundation and the Lemelson Center. Through a series of presentations and brainstorming sessions, Dr. McConaghy taught the group how to research, document, and find an interpretive pathway for a topic that will become part of the Places of Invention exhibition and website when it opens in 2015.“Let’s be reflective,” McConaghy advised. “Think about your topic as an opportunity to engage your community in invention and innovation and inspire people to think of their own place as a place of invention.”

A lively and gregarious discussion provided no shortages of possible topics, such as:

Super Slurper flake, photograph by George Robinson. Courtesy of USDA.

Mass-production of penicillin as just one of the inventions out of Peoria, Illinois’ USDA-NCAUR lab: Behold the mighty “Super Slurper,” the cornstarch-based superabsorbent polymer used in everything from disposable diapers to biodegradable packing peanuts and plastic utensils; protective seed coatings to fuel filters. It’s even used by archivists to dry out waterlogged books and prevent mold.

By close of day, the teams had come up with thought-provoking possible titles: War Ends, Healing Begins: The Rise of Nuclear Medicine; From Field to Function: Agricultural Research in Peoria, Illinois; How Prohibition Spawned Fiberglass: Newark, Ohio, 1920–1933; and Forgotten Pioneers of the Pittsburgh Sound, to name a few. These topics and titles are not set in stone, but the exercise was a valuable one for all of us thinking about how to create the most compelling content for each community.

I’m thrilled to be directing this process as the new Places of Invention Affiliates Project Coordinator. I look forward to sharing this experience with you in a series of blogs written by Affiliate museums, their community partners, Smithsonian Affiliations, and Lemelson staff. I love the work that Smithsonian Affiliations does—I’ve seen first-hand the ways that its programs foster the exchange between Affiliate museums and the Smithsonian, broadening each institution’s reach. I see the Affiliates Pilot Project as an opportunity to take this relationship even further, creating a new model for collaborative co-creation of exhibition content that we hope will extend to another 20 Affiliate museums. As my colleague Monica Smith points out, we are the prototype for the Affiliates Pilot Project.  I hope you will join us—sharing your suggestions and comments as we move forward in this inventive process.